The category of FDIC-insured commercial banks includes all commercial
banks insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). It also
includes all commercial banks insured by the FDIC that are regulated by
and submit financial data to one of the three Federal commercial bank
regulators (Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Federal
Deposit Insurance Corporation or Office of the Comptroller of the
Currency). The category of FDIC-insured savings institutions includes all
institutions insured by the FDIC that operated under state or federal
banking codes applicable to thrift institutions. Data on savings
institutions that have been placed in Resolution Trust Corporation
conservatorship (1989 through 1995) are not aggregated with other savings
institutions, since they do not operate as privately-held entities, and
their resolution costs do not accrue to the FDIC. These RTC
conservatorship institutions are listed separately as memoranda items
The FDIC assigns classification codes indicating an institution's
charter type (commercial bank, savings bank, or savings association), its
chartering agent (state or federal government), its Federal Reserve
membership status (member or nonmember), and its primary federal regulator
(state-chartered institutions are subject to both federal and state
supervision). These codes are:
- N National chartered commercial bank
supervised by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency
- SM State charter Fed member commercial
bank supervised by the Federal Reserve
- NM State charter Fed nonmember
commercial bank supervised by the FDIC
- SA State or federal charter savings association supervised by the Office of Thrift Supervision or Office of the Comptroller of the Currency
- SB State charter savings bank supervised by the FDIC
charter is the legal authorization to conduct business and is
granted to a financial institution by federal or state government.
Charter types include:
- All Charters
Commercial banks, savings institutions and U.S. branches of
foreign banks insured by the FDIC.
- Insured Commercial Banks
Commercial banks insured by the FDIC. These institutions are regulated by one of the three
Federal commercial bank regulators (FDIC, Federal Reserve Board
or Office of the Comptroller of the Currency). The institutions
submit financial reports to the Federal Reserve (state member
banks), the FDIC (state nonmember banks), or the Office of the
Comptroller of the Currency (national banks).
- Insured Savings Institutions
Savings institutions insured by
FDIC that operate under state or federal banking
codes applicable to thrift institutions.
- Insured Branches of Foreign Banks
Branches of foreign banks (banks chartered
and headquartered outside the U.S.) that are insured by the FDIC.
These institutions are regulated by one of the three Federal
commercial bank regulators and submit financial data to the
The date that the failed / assisted institution ceased to exist as a
privately held going concern. For institutions that entered into
government ownership, such as FDIC Bridge Banks and RTC
conservatorships, this is the date that they entered into such
Includes all commercial banks insured by the FDIC.
These institutions are regulated by and submit financial data to one
of three federal commercial bank regulators (the Federal Reserve
Board, the FDIC, or the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency).
FDIC-insured commercial banks include the following categories of
depository institutions insured by the FDIC:
- National banks
- State-chartered banks and trust
companies, except savings banks
banks, either nationally or state-chartered, insured by the FDIC
- Other financial institutions which
operate under general banking codes, or are specifically
authorized by law to accept deposits and in practice do so or
the obligations of which are regarded as deposits for deposit
institutions insured by either the FDIC operating under
state or federal banking codes applicable to savings institutions.
Data on savings institutions that have been placed in RTC
conservatorship are not aggregated with those that were not, since
the former do not operate as privately-held entities, and their
resolution costs do not accrue to the FDIC. These RTC
conservatorships are listed separately as memoranda, where
The certificate number assigned by the FDIC used to identify
institutions and for the issuance of insurance certificates.
By clicking on this number, you will link to the Institution Directory (ID)
system which will provide the last demographic and financial data filed by
the selected institution.
The given institution has failure stature or it can be assistance has been provided by FDIC in merging with other institution.
The estimated loss is the difference between the amount disbursed from the Deposit Insurance Fund (DIF) to cover obligations to insured depositors and the amount estimated to be ultimately recovered from the liquidation of the receivership estate. Estimated losses reflect unpaid principal amounts deemed unrecoverable and do not reflect interest that may be due on the DIF's administrative or subrogated claims should its principal be repaid in full.
Comprehensive data on estimated losses are not available for FDIC-insured failures prior to 1986, or for FSLIC-insured failures from 1934-88. Estimated loss is presented as “N/A” in years for which comprehensive information is not available.
Estimated Loss data was previously referred to as ‘Estimated Cost’ in past releases of the Historical Statistic on Banking. For RTC receiverships, the ‘Estimated Cost’ included an allocation of FDIC corporate revenue and expense items such as interest expense on Federal Financing Bank debt, interest expense on escrowed funds and interest revenue on advances to receiverships. Other FDIC receiverships did not include such an allocation. To maintain consistency with FDIC receiverships, the RTC allocation is no longer reflected in the estimated loss amounts for failed / assisted institutions that were resolved through RTC receiverships.
Beginning with the release of 2007 information, the ‘Estimated Loss’ in the Historical Statistics on Banking is presented and defined consistently with the aggregate Estimated Receivership Loss for FRF-RTC institutions and Estimated Losses for FDIC receiverships that are reported in the FDIC’s Annual Report. The estimated loss is obtained from the FDIC’s Failed Bank Cost Analysis (FBCA) report and the RTC Loss report. The FBCA provides data for receiverships back to 1986. The RTC Loss Report provides similar data back to 1989.
Questions regarding Estimated Loss should be sent to
Also, for more detail regarding resolution transactions and the FDIC's receivership activities, see
Managing the Crisis: The FDIC and RTC Experience, a historical study prepared by the FDIC's Division of Resolutions and Receiverships. Copies are available from the
FDIC's Public Information Center.
Before 1989, there were two federal deposit insurance funds, one
administered by the FDIC, which insured deposits in commercial banks and
state-chartered savings banks, and another administered by the Federal
Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation (FSLIC), which insured deposits
in state- and federally-chartered savings associations. In 1989, the
Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act (FIRREA)
specified that thereafter the FDIC would be the federal deposit insurer
of all banks and savings associations and would administer both the FDIC
fund, which was renamed the Bank Insurance Fund (BIF) and the
replacement for the insolvent FSLIC fund, which was called the Savings
Association Insurance Fund (SAIF). Although it was created in 1989, the
SAIF was not responsible for savings association failures until 1996.
From 1989 through 1995, savings association failures were the
responsibility of the Resolution Trust Corporation (RTC). In February
The Federal Deposit Insurance Reform Act of 2005 provided for the
merger of the BIF and the SAIF into a single Deposit Insurance Fund
(DIF). Necessary technical and conforming changes to the law were made
The Federal Deposit Insurance Reform Conforming Amendments Act of 2005.
The merger of the funds was effective on March 31, 2006.
additional information about deposit insurance fund and legislation, go to
Financial Institution Number is a unique number assigned to the institution as an Assistance
Agreement, Conservatorship, Bridge Bank or Receivership.
The state in which the headquarters of the institution are physically located.
The FDIC Act defines state as any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any territory of the United States,
Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Virgin Island, and the Northern Mariana Islands.
You can select one of the three summary levels or individual states, but not both.
For the Bank Failures and Assistance Transaction report you can select multiple states by holding down the Control Key and selecting specific states.
The city and
state (or territory) of the headquarters of the institution.
This is the legal
name of the institution. When available, the Institution's name links to useful information for
the customers and vendors of these institutions. This information includes press
releases, information about the acquiring institution, (if applicable), how your accounts
and loans are affected, and how vendors can file claims against the receivership.
Total assets owned by the institution including cash, loans, securities, bank premises and other assets as of the last Call Report or Thrift Financial Report filed by the institution prior to the effective date. Note this does not necessarily reflect total assets on the last report filed because in some cases reports were filed after the effective date. This total does not include off-balance-sheet accounts.
Total including demand deposits, money market deposits, other savings deposits, time deposits and deposits in foreign offices as of the last Call Report or Thrift Financial Report filed by the institution prior to the effective date. Note this does not necessarily reflect total deposits on the last report filed because in some cases reports were filed after the effective date.
Institutions have been resolved through several different types of
transactions. The transaction types outlined below can be grouped into
three general categories, based upon the method employed to protect
insured depositors and how each transaction affects a failed / assisted
institution's charter. In most assistance transactions, insured and
uninsured depositors are protected, the failed / assisted institution
remains open and its charter survives the resolution process. In
purchase and assumption transactions, the failed / assisted
institution's insured deposits are transferred to a successor
institution, and its charter is closed. In most of these transactions,
additional liabilities and assets are also transferred to the successor
institution. In payoff transactions, the deposit insurer - the FDIC or
the former Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation - pays insured
depositors, the failed / assisted institution's charter is closed, and
there is no successor institution. For a more complete description of
resolution transactions and the FDIC's receivership activities, see
Managing the Crisis: The FDIC and RTC Experience, a study prepared by
the FDIC's Division of Resolutions and Receiverships. Copies are available from the
FDIC's Public Information Center.
||Institution's charter survives
Assistance Transactions. These include:
1) transactions where assistance was provided to the acquirer, who
purchased the entire institution. For a few FSLIC transactions, the
acquirer purchased the entire bridge bank - type entity, but certain
other assets were moved into a liquidating receivership prior to the
2) open bank assistance transactions, including those where
assistance was provided under a systemic risk determination (in such
cases any costs that exceed the amounts estimated under the least
cost resolution requirement would be recovered through a special
assessment on all FDIC-insured institutions).
management takeover with or without assistance at takeover, followed
by a sale with or without additional assistance.
Institution's charter is terminated, insured
deposits plus some assets and other liabilities are
transferred to a successor charter
Assumption, where some or all of the deposits, certain other
liabilities and a portion of the assets (sometimes all of the
assets) were sold to an acquirer. It was not determined if all of
the deposits (PA) or only the insured deposits (PI) were assumed.
Assumption, where the insured and uninsured deposits, certain other
liabilities and a portion of the assets were sold to an acquirer.
Assumption of the insured deposits only, where the traditional P&A
was modified so that only the insured deposits were assumed by the
Deposit Transfer, where the acquiring institution served as a paying
agent for the insurer, established accounts on their books for
depositors, and often acquired some assets as well. Includes ABT
(asset-backed transfer, a FSLIC transaction that is very similar to
institution where FSLIC took over management and generally provided
financial assistance. FSLIC closed down before the institution was
Payout, where the insurer paid the depositors directly and placed
the assets in a liquidating receivership.
Note: Includes transactions where the FDIC established a Deposit Insurance National Bank to facilitate the payout process.