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Help Index
Introduction Contents Data Sources Methodology
Comparability of Data
 
Level of Consolidation Validation Exclusions Definitions Comments, Suggestions and Requests


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INTRODUCTION


The Historical Statistics on Banking (HSOB) is intended to be a reference and source document for those interested in banking history and in performing analyses on major trends in banking. It contains both structure and financial data on insured commercial banks and savings institutions from the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation's inception in 1934 to the present as well as bank failures and assistance transactions. Its primary goal is to provide comprehensive industry data about FDIC-insured depository institutions.

In addition to the HSOB, the FDIC offers other products that may provide more detail and analysis for current and historical data. These products include data for individual institutions, summary level data and peer group analysis. These products can be found under the Bank Data and Statistics or the Research and Analysis pages on the FDIC’s web site, www.fdic.gov.

 
FDIC.gov INDUSTRY ANALYSIS Bank Data and Statistics
   
  Call Reports and Thrift Financial Reports - http://www2.fdic.gov/Call_TFR_Rpts/index.asp 
    Central Data Repository - https://cdr.ffiec.gov/public/ 
    Call Reports and Thrift Financial Reports from 2001 to the present for individual banks and savings associations are available for viewing and downloading.
     
  Institution Directoryhttp://www2.fdic.gov/idasp/index.asp 
The FDIC Institution Directory (ID) provides the latest comprehensive financial and demographic data for every FDIC-insured institution, including the most recent quarterly financial statements, with performance and condition ratios.
     
  Statistics on Depository Institutions - http://www2.fdic.gov/sdi/index.asp 
The FDIC Statistics on Depository Institutions (SDI) is an advanced feature of the Institution Directory (ID) that allows you to obtain more detailed financial reports. It also provides you with the ability to create reports containing customized peer groups of FDIC-insured institutions as well as summarize that data at the bank holding company level.
   
FDIC.gov INDUSTRY ANALYSIS Research and Analysis
   
  FDIC Quarterly Banking Profile - http://www2.fdic.gov/qbp/index.asp 
The FDIC Quarterly Banking Profile (QBP) provides the most timely comprehensive summary of financial results for all FDIC-insured institutions on a quarterly basis. This report card on industry status and performance includes written analyses, graphs and statistical tables.
   
  Statistics on Banking - http://www2.fdic.gov/SDI/SOB/ 
The Statistics on Banking is a quarterly publication that provides detailed aggregate financial information as well as key structural data (number of institutions and branches) for all FDIC- insured institutions.


For additional information regarding these publications, please refer to the individual web sites or the Bank Data Guide, http://www.fdic.gov/bank/statistical/guide/index.html.


CONTENTS


Commercial Bank Reports and Savings Institution Reports are grouped into three categories:
  • Institution and Structure - numbers and types of institutions and branches as of year-end
  • Financial Data - Income Statement - year-to-date income and expense data
  • Financial Data - Balance Sheet - balance sheet data as of year-end
     
Data Availability National Aggregates State Aggregates
Commercial Banks 1934 – current 1966 - current
Savings Institutions 1984 – current 1984 – current

Failures & Assistance Transactions
Failure and Assistance Transaction Reports are generated by criteria determined by users. A variety of selection criteria and sort options are available.


DATA SOURCES


The structure and financial data sources used in the preparation of the publication are:

Annual Reports of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, 1934 - current
Assets and Liabilities, Commercial and Mutual Savings Banks, 1934 - 1983
Bank Operating Statistics, 1968 - 1983
FDIC’s Research Information System (RIS), 1984 – current

The primary sources of financial data for the publications listed above are the Reports of Income and Condition submitted by FDIC-insured institutions to the Federal commercial bank regulators and the Thrift Financial Reports submitted by the FDIC-insured savings institutions that were regulated by the Office of Thrift Supervision(1984-2011). Structure data are based on information contained in the FDIC financial institution structure data base (SIMS).

METHODOLOGY


In order to provide the most recent and accurate data, all financial data at both the national and state levels from 1984 to the present have been obtained from the FDIC's Research Information System (RIS). The data in the data base reflects revisions and amendments made subsequent to publication in the hard copy sources. All other data has been obtained from the other four sources listed above. When using published data, both structure and financial values were obtained from the latest edition reflecting the data for a particular year. For example, the 1965 Annual Report was the source for much of the 1957 data that appear in the publication. Since not all data, particularly at the state level, were revised and republished in later editions of the sources, multiple sources for the same year had to be used. The effect of using two sources occasionally results in differences in aggregate values for the data. These differences are not considered significant for the intended use and purpose of the publication

COMPARABILITY OF DATA


Reporting requirements and instructions have changed considerably over the period covered by this publication. Where possible, adjustments have been made to account for these differences to make the values adhere as closely as possible to current requirements and instructions. The notes accompanying the tables are an integral part of the publication and provide information on adjustments made to source data and on reporting differences over time.

LEVEL OF CONSOLIDATION


All data from 1934 to 1973 represent a consolidation of all domestic operations of the institutions and, where available, operations in what is designated "Other Areas" in source publications. "Other areas" are represented by Guam, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, and all other U.S. Territories and possessions. With some exceptions, primarily at the state level, all financial data from 1974 to the present represent the consolidation of domestic and foreign operations, including operations in "other areas".

VALIDATION


Every attempt has been made to assure the accuracy and integrity of the data contained in the publication. Any inconsistency brought to our attention will be investigated and corrected or explained in future editions.

EXCLUSIONS


Data on depository institutions not insured by the FDIC are not included in this publication. Institutions in the following categories are excluded, although such institutions may perform many of the same functions as FDIC-insured depository institutions:
  • State-chartered and private banks not insured by the FDIC
  • FDIC-Insured domestic branches of foreign banks (IBA offices)
  • Nondeposit trust companies
  • Other institutions not insured by the FDIC, including credit unions, building and loan associations, personal loan companies, industrial banks, loan and investment companies, and similar institutions, chartered under laws applicable to such institutions or under general incorporation laws regardless of whether such institutions are called 'banks'
  • Institutions chartered under banking or trust company laws, but operating as investment or title insurance companies and not engaged in deposit taking
  • Federal Reserve Banks and other banks, such as the Federal Home Loan Banks, which operate as rediscount banks and do not accept deposits except from financial institutions
  • Branches of FDIC-insured OTS-regulated institutions


DEFINITIONS


Please note that the terms listed below are a partial list of definitions that are available. Other definitions are available in the Help Index , Institution Directory (ID) and Statistics on Banking (SOB) systems.


FDIC-Insured Institutions
The category of FDIC-insured commercial banks includes all commercial banks insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). It also includes all commercial banks insured by the FDIC that are regulated by and submit financial data to one of the three Federal commercial bank regulators (Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or Office of the Comptroller of the Currency). The category of FDIC-insured savings institutions includes all institutions insured by the FDIC that operated under state or federal banking codes applicable to thrift institutions. Data on savings institutions that have been placed in Resolution Trust Corporation conservatorship (1989 through 1995) are not aggregated with other savings institutions, since they do not operate as privately-held entities, and their resolution costs do not accrue to the FDIC. These RTC conservatorship institutions are listed separately as memoranda items where applicable.

Charter Class
The FDIC assigns classification codes indicating an institution's charter type (commercial bank, savings bank, or savings association), its chartering agent (state or federal government), its Federal Reserve membership status (member or nonmember), and its primary federal regulator (state-chartered institutions are subject to both federal and state supervision). These codes are:

  • N National chartered commercial bank supervised by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency
  • SM State charter Fed member commercial bank supervised by the Federal Reserve
  • NM State charter Fed nonmember commercial bank supervised by the FDIC
  • SA State or federal charter savings association supervised by the Office of Thrift Supervision or Office of the Comptroller of the Currency
  • SB State charter savings bank supervised by the FDIC

Charter Type
A charter is the legal authorization to conduct business and is granted to a financial institution by federal or state government. Charter types include:

  • All Charters
    Commercial banks, savings institutions and U.S. branches of foreign banks insured by the FDIC.
  • Insured Commercial Banks
    Commercial banks insured by the FDIC. These institutions are regulated by one of the three Federal commercial bank regulators (FDIC, Federal Reserve Board or Office of the Comptroller of the Currency). The institutions submit financial reports to the Federal Reserve (state member banks), the FDIC (state nonmember banks), or the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (national banks).
  • Insured Savings Institutions
    Savings institutions insured by FDIC that operate under state or federal banking codes applicable to thrift institutions.
  • Insured Branches of Foreign Banks
    Branches of foreign banks (banks chartered and headquartered outside the U.S.) that are insured by the FDIC. These institutions are regulated by one of the three Federal commercial bank regulators and submit financial data to the Federal Reserve.

Effective Date
The date that the failed / assisted institution ceased to exist as a privately held going concern. For institutions that entered into government ownership, such as FDIC Bridge Banks and RTC conservatorships, this is the date that they entered into such ownership.  

FDIC-Insured Commercial Banks
Includes all commercial banks insured by the FDIC. These institutions are regulated by and submit financial data to one of three federal commercial bank regulators (the Federal Reserve Board, the FDIC, or the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency). FDIC-insured commercial banks include the following categories of depository institutions insured by the FDIC:

  • National banks
  • State-chartered banks and trust companies, except savings banks
  • Commercial banks, either nationally or state-chartered, insured by the FDIC
  • Other financial institutions which operate under general banking codes, or are specifically authorized by law to accept deposits and in practice do so or the obligations of which are regarded as deposits for deposit insurance

FDIC-Insured Savings Institutions
Includes all institutions insured by either the FDIC operating under state or federal banking codes applicable to savings institutions. Data on savings institutions that have been placed in RTC conservatorship are not aggregated with those that were not, since the former do not operate as privately-held entities, and their resolution costs do not accrue to the FDIC. These RTC conservatorships are listed separately as memoranda, where applicable.

Cert
The certificate number assigned by the FDIC used to identify institutions and for the issuance of insurance certificates. By clicking on this number, you will link to the Institution Directory (ID) system which will provide the last demographic and financial data filed by the selected institution.

Failure/Assistance
The given institution has failure stature or it can be assistance has been provided by FDIC in merging with other institution.

Estimated Loss
The estimated loss is the difference between the amount disbursed from the Deposit Insurance Fund (DIF) to cover obligations to insured depositors and the amount estimated to be ultimately recovered from the liquidation of the receivership estate. Estimated losses reflect unpaid principal amounts deemed unrecoverable and do not reflect interest that may be due on the DIF's administrative or subrogated claims should its principal be repaid in full.

Notes:
Comprehensive data on estimated losses are not available for FDIC-insured failures prior to 1986, or for FSLIC-insured failures from 1934-88. Estimated loss is presented as “N/A” in years for which comprehensive information is not available.

Estimated Loss data was previously referred to as ‘Estimated Cost’ in past releases of the Historical Statistic on Banking. For RTC receiverships, the ‘Estimated Cost’ included an allocation of FDIC corporate revenue and expense items such as interest expense on Federal Financing Bank debt, interest expense on escrowed funds and interest revenue on advances to receiverships. Other FDIC receiverships did not include such an allocation. To maintain consistency with FDIC receiverships, the RTC allocation is no longer reflected in the estimated loss amounts for failed / assisted institutions that were resolved through RTC receiverships.

Beginning with the release of 2007 information, the ‘Estimated Loss’ in the Historical Statistics on Banking is presented and defined consistently with the aggregate Estimated Receivership Loss for FRF-RTC institutions and Estimated Losses for FDIC receiverships that are reported in the FDIC’s Annual Report. The estimated loss is obtained from the FDIC’s Failed Bank Cost Analysis (FBCA) report and the RTC Loss report. The FBCA provides data for receiverships back to 1986. The RTC Loss Report provides similar data back to 1989.
Questions regarding Estimated Loss should be sent to DOFBusinessCenter@fdic.gov.

Also, for more detail regarding resolution transactions and the FDIC's receivership activities, see Managing the Crisis: The FDIC and RTC Experience, a historical study prepared by the FDIC's Division of Resolutions and Receiverships. Copies are available from the FDIC's Public Information Center.

Insurance Fund
Before 1989, there were two federal deposit insurance funds, one administered by the FDIC, which insured deposits in commercial banks and state-chartered savings banks, and another administered by the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation (FSLIC), which insured deposits in state- and federally-chartered savings associations. In 1989, the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act (FIRREA) specified that thereafter the FDIC would be the federal deposit insurer of all banks and savings associations and would administer both the FDIC fund, which was renamed the Bank Insurance Fund (BIF) and the replacement for the insolvent FSLIC fund, which was called the Savings Association Insurance Fund (SAIF). Although it was created in 1989, the SAIF was not responsible for savings association failures until 1996. From 1989 through 1995, savings association failures were the responsibility of the Resolution Trust Corporation (RTC). In February 2006, The Federal Deposit Insurance Reform Act of 2005 provided for the merger of the BIF and the SAIF into a single Deposit Insurance Fund (DIF). Necessary technical and conforming changes to the law were made under The Federal Deposit Insurance Reform Conforming Amendments Act of 2005. The merger of the funds was effective on March 31, 2006.

For additional information about deposit insurance fund and legislation, go to http://www.fdic.gov/deposit/insurance/index.html.

FIN
Financial Institution Number is a unique number assigned to the institution as an Assistance Agreement, Conservatorship, Bridge Bank or Receivership.

State
The state in which the headquarters of the institution are physically located. The FDIC Act defines state as any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any territory of the United States, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Virgin Island, and the Northern Mariana Islands.
You can select one of the three summary levels or individual states, but not both. For the Bank Failures and Assistance Transaction report you can select multiple states by holding down the Control Key and selecting specific states.

Location
The city and state (or territory) of the headquarters of the institution.

Institution Name
This is the legal name of the institution. When available, the Institution's name links to useful information for the customers and vendors of these institutions. This information includes press releases, information about the acquiring institution, (if applicable), how your accounts and loans are affected, and how vendors can file claims against the receivership.  

Total Assets
The Total assets owned by the institution including cash, loans, securities, bank premises and other assets as of the last Call Report or Thrift Financial Report filed by the institution prior to the effective date. Note this does not necessarily reflect total assets on the last report filed because in some cases reports were filed after the effective date. This total does not include off-balance-sheet accounts.

Total Deposits
Total including demand deposits, money market deposits, other savings deposits, time deposits and deposits in foreign offices as of the last Call Report or Thrift Financial Report filed by the institution prior to the effective date. Note this does not necessarily reflect total deposits on the last report filed because in some cases reports were filed after the effective date.

Transaction Types
Institutions have been resolved through several different types of transactions. The transaction types outlined below can be grouped into three general categories, based upon the method employed to protect insured depositors and how each transaction affects a failed / assisted institution's charter. In most assistance transactions, insured and uninsured depositors are protected, the failed / assisted institution remains open and its charter survives the resolution process. In purchase and assumption transactions, the failed / assisted institution's insured deposits are transferred to a successor institution, and its charter is closed. In most of these transactions, additional liabilities and assets are also transferred to the successor institution. In payoff transactions, the deposit insurer - the FDIC or the former Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation - pays insured depositors, the failed / assisted institution's charter is closed, and there is no successor institution. For a more complete description of resolution transactions and the FDIC's receivership activities, see Managing the Crisis: The FDIC and RTC Experience, a study prepared by the FDIC's Division of Resolutions and Receiverships. Copies are available from the FDIC's Public Information Center.

Category 1 Institution's charter survives
  A/A Assistance Transactions. These include:
1) transactions where assistance was provided to the acquirer, who purchased the entire institution. For a few FSLIC transactions, the acquirer purchased the entire bridge bank - type entity, but certain other assets were moved into a liquidating receivership prior to the sale, and
2) open bank assistance transactions, including those where assistance was provided under a systemic risk determination (in such cases any costs that exceed the amounts estimated under the least cost resolution requirement would be recovered through a special assessment on all FDIC-insured institutions).
  REP Reprivatization, management takeover with or without assistance at takeover, followed by a sale with or without additional assistance.
Category 2 Institution's charter is terminated, insured deposits plus some assets and other liabilities are transferred to a successor charter
P&A Purchase and Assumption, where some or all of the deposits, certain other liabilities and a portion of the assets (sometimes all of the assets) were sold to an acquirer. It was not determined if all of the deposits (PA) or only the insured deposits (PI) were assumed.
  PA Purchase and Assumption, where the insured and uninsured deposits, certain other liabilities and a portion of the assets were sold to an acquirer.
  PI Purchase and Assumption of the insured deposits only, where the traditional P&A was modified so that only the insured deposits were assumed by the acquiring institution.
IDT Insured Deposit Transfer, where the acquiring institution served as a paying agent for the insurer, established accounts on their books for depositors, and often acquired some assets as well. Includes ABT (asset-backed transfer, a FSLIC transaction that is very similar to an IDT).
MGR An institution where FSLIC took over management and generally provided financial assistance. FSLIC closed down before the institution was sold.
Category 3 PO  Payout, where the insurer paid the depositors directly and placed the assets in a liquidating receivership.
Note: Includes transactions where the FDIC established a Deposit Insurance National Bank to facilitate the payout process.


HELP INDEX


The HSOB Help Index cross-references data elements with the corresponding HSOB tables and data variable definitions. The index may be sorted by type of data (structural or financial), HSOB variable, type of institution or by HSOB table name. In addition, the Help Index provides a search option for a word or phrase for all of these variables.

COMMENTS, SUGGESTIONS AND REQUESTS


Comments and content suggestions for the Historical Statistics on Banking should be sent to:
http://www2.fdic.gov/idasp/DIRSInfoRequest.asp.