|Home > Industry Analysis > Research & Analysis > QBP Home > Glossary Definitions|
|QBP Home|||||Quarterly Banking Profile|||||Graph Book|||||Statistics at a Glance|||||State Tables|||||Glossary|||||Subscription Information|||||Comments & Questions|
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
|All other assets||Total cash, balances due from depository institutions, premises, fixed assets, direct investments in real estate, investment in unconsolidated subsidiaries, customers’ liability on acceptances outstanding, assets held in trading accounts, federal funds sold, securities purchased with agreements to resell, fair market value of derivatives, and other assets.|
|All other liabilities||Bank’s liability on acceptances, limited-life preferred stock, allowance for estimated off-balance sheet credit losses, fair market value of derivatives, and other liabilities.|
|Assessment base||Effective April 1, 2011, the deposit insurance assessment base has changed to “average consolidated total assets minus average tangible equity” with an additional adjustment to the assessment base for banker’s banks and custodial banks, as permitted under Dodd-Frank. Previously the assessment base was “assessable deposits” and consisted of DIF deposits (deposits insured by the FDIC Deposit Insurance Fund) in banks’ domestic offices with certain adjustments.
|Asset Concentration Group Definitions||
(Groups are hierarchical and mutually exclusive):
Credit-card Lenders - Institutions whose credit-card loans plus securitized receivables exceed 50 percent of total assets plus securitized receivables.
International Banks - Banks with assets greater than $10 billion and more than 25 percent of total assets in foreign offices.
Agricultural Banks - Banks whose agricultural production loans plus real estate loans secured by farmland exceed 25 percent of total loans and leases.
Commercial Lenders - Institutions whose commercial and industrial loans, plus real estate construction and development loans, plus loans secured by commercial real estate properties exceed 25 percent of total assets.
Mortgage Lenders - Institutions whose residential mortgage loans, plus mortgage-backed securities, exceed 50 percent of total assets.
Consumer Lenders - Institutions whose residential mortgage loans, plus credit-card loans, plus other loans to individuals, exceed 50 percent of total assets.
Other Specialized < $1 Billion - Institutions with assets less than $1 billion, whose loans and leases are less than 40 percent of total assets.
All Other < $1 Billion - Institutions with assets less than $1 billion that do not meet any of the definitions above, they have significant lending activity with no identified asset concentrations.
All Other > $1 Billion - Institutions with assets greater than $1 billion that do not meet any of the definitions above, they have significant lending activity with no identified asset concentrations.
|Assets securitized and sold||Total outstanding principal balance of assets securitized and sold with servicing retained or other seller-provided credit enhancements.|
|Capital Purchase Program (CPP)||As announced in October 2008 under the TARP, the Treasury Department purchase of noncumulative perpetual preferred stock and related warrants that is treated as Tier 1 capital for regulatory capital purposes is included in “Total equity capital.” Such warrants to purchase common stock or noncumulative preferred stock issued by publicly-traded banks are reflected as well in “Surplus.” Warrants to purchase common stock or noncumulative preferred stock of not-publicly-traded bank stock classified in a bank’s balance sheet as “Other liabilities.”|
|Construction and development loans||Includes loans for all property types under construction, as well as loans for land acquisition and development.|
|Core capital||Common equity capital plus noncumulative perpetual preferred stock plus minority interest in consolidated subsidiaries, less goodwill and other ineligible intangible assets. The amount of eligible intangibles (including servicing rights) included in core capital is limited in accordance with supervisory capital regulations.|
|Cost of funding earning assets||Total interest expense paid on deposits and other borrowed money as a percentage of average earning assets.|
|Credit enhancements||Techniques whereby a company attempts to reduce the credit risk of its obligations. Credit enhancement may be provided by a third party (external credit enhancement) or by the originator (internal credit enhancement), and more than one type of enhancement may be associated with a given issuance.|
|Deposit Insurance Fund (DIF)||The Bank (BIF) and Savings Association (SAIF) Insurance Funds were merged in 2006 by the Federal Deposit Insurance Reform Act to form the Deposit Insurance Fund (DIF).|
|Derivative transaction types||
Derivatives transaction types:
Futures and forward contracts – Contracts in which the buyer agrees to purchase and the seller agrees to sell, at a specified future date, a specific quantity of an underlying variable or index at a specified price or yield. These contracts exist for a variety of variables or indices (traditional agricultural or physical commodities, as well as currencies and interest rates). Futures contracts are standardized and are traded on organized exchanges which set limits on counterparty credit exposure. Forward contracts do not have standardized terms and are traded over the counter.
Option contracts – Contracts in which the buyer acquires the right to buy from or sell to another party some specified amount of an underlying variable or index at a stated price (strike price) during a period or on a specified future date, in return for compensation (such as a fee or premium). The seller is obligated to purchase or sell the variable or index at the discretion of the buyer of the contract.
Swaps – Obligations between two parties to exchange a series of cash flows at periodic intervals (settlement dates), for a specified period. The cash flows of a swap are either fixed, or determined for each settlement date by multiplying the quantity (notional principal) of the underlying variable or index by specified reference rates or prices. Except for currency swaps, the notional principal is used to calculate each payment but is not exchanged.
|Derivatives credit equivalent amount||The fair value of the derivative plus an additional amount for potential future credit exposure based on the notional amount, the remaining maturity and type of the contract.|
|Derivatives notional amount||The notional or contractual amounts of derivatives represent the level of involvement in the types of derivatives transactions and are not a quantification of market risk or credit risk. Notional amounts represent the amounts used to calculate contractual cash flows to be exchanged.|
|Derivatives underlying risk exposure||The potential exposure characterized by the level of banks' concentration in particular underlying instruments, in general. Exposure can result from market risk, credit risk, and operational risk, as well as interest rate risk.|
|Domestic deposits to total assets||Total domestic office deposits as a percent of total assets on a consolidated basis.|
|Earning assets||All loans and other investments that earn interest or dividend income.|
|Efficiency Ratio||Noninterest expense less amortization of intangible assets as a percent of net interest income plus noninterest income. This ratio measures the proportion of net operating revenues that are absorbed by overhead expenses, so that a lower value indicates greater efficiency.|
|Estimated insured deposits||In general, insured deposits are total domestic deposits minus estimated uninsured deposits. Beginning March 31, 2008, for institutions that file Call Reports, insured deposits are total assessable deposits minus estimated uninsured deposits. Beginning September 30, 2009, insured deposits include deposits in accounts of $100,000 to $250,000 that are covered by a temporary increase in the FDIC’s standard maximum deposit insurance amount (SMDIA). The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act enacted on July 21, 2010, made permanent the standard maximum deposit insurance amount (SMDIA) of $250,000. Also, the Dodd-Frank Act amends the Federal Deposit Insurance Act to include noninterest-bearing transaction accounts as a new temporary deposit insurance account category. All funds held in noninterest-bearing transaction accounts are fully insured, without limit, from December 31, 2010, through December 31, 2012.|
|Failed/assisted institutions||An institution fails when regulators take control of the institution, placing the assets and liabilities into a bridge bank, conservatorship, receivership, or another healthy institution. This action may require the FDIC to provide funds to cover losses. An institution is defined as “assisted” when the institution remains open and receives assistance in order to continue operating.|
|Fair Value||The valuation of various assets and liabilities on the balance sheet—including trading assets and liabilities, available-for-sale securities, loans held for sale, assets and liabilities accounted for under the fair value option, and foreclosed assets—involves the use of fair values. During periods of market stress, the fair values of some financial instruments and nonfinancial assets may decline.|
|FHLB advances||All borrowings by FDIC insured institutions from the Federal Home Loan Bank System (FHLB), as reported by Call Report filers and by TFR filers.|
|Goodwill and other intangibles||Intangible assets include servicing rights, purchased credit card relationships, and other identifiable intangible assets. Goodwill is the excess of the purchase price over the fair market value of the net assets acquired, less subsequent impairment adjustments. Other intangible assets are recorded at fair value, less subsequent quarterly amortization and impairment adjustments.|
|Loans secured by real estate||Includes home equity loans, junior liens secured by 1-4 family residential properties and all other loans secured by real estate.|
|Loans to individuals||Includes outstanding credit card balances and other secured and unsecured consumer loans.|
|Long-term assets (5+ years)||Loans and debt securities with remaining maturities or repricing intervals of over five years.|
|Maximum credit exposure||The maximum contractual credit exposure remaining under recourse arrangements and other seller-provided credit enhancements provided by the reporting bank to securitizations.|
|Mortgage-backed securities||Certificates of participation in pools of residential mortgages and collateralized mortgage obligations issued or guaranteed by government-sponsored or private enterprises. Also, see "Securities", below.|
|Net charge-offs||Total loans and leases charged off (removed from balance sheet because of uncollectibility), less amounts recovered on loans and leases previously charged off.|
|Net interest margin||The difference between interest and dividends earned on interest-bearing assets and interest paid to depositors and other creditors, expressed as a percentage of average earning assets. No adjustments are made for interest income that is tax exempt.|
|Net loans to total assets||Loans and lease financing receivables, net of unearned income, allowance and reserves, as a percent of total assets on a consolidated basis.|
|Net operating income||Income excluding discretionary transactions such as gains (or losses) on the sale of investment securities and extraordinary items. Income taxes subtracted from operating income have been adjusted to exclude the portion applicable to securities gains (or losses).|
|Noncurrent assets||The sum of loans, leases, debt securities and other assets that are 90 days or more past due, or in nonaccrual status.|
|Noncurrent loans & leases||The sum of loans and leases 90 days or more past due, and loans and leases in nonaccrual status.|
|Number of institutions reporting||The number of institutions that actually filed a financial report.|
|Other borrowed funds||Federal funds purchased, securities sold with agreements to repurchase, demand notes issued to the U.S. Treasury, FHLB advances, other borrowed money, mortgage indebtedness, obligations under capitalized leases and trading liabilities, less revaluation losses on assets held in trading accounts.|
|Other real estate owned||Primarily foreclosed property. Direct and indirect investments in real estate ventures are excluded. The amount is reflected net of valuation allowances. For institutions that file a Thrift Financial Report (TFR), the valuation allowance subtracted also includes allowances for other repossessed assets. Also, for TFR filers the components of other real estate owned are reported gross of valuation allowances.|
|Percent of institutions with earnings gains||The percent of institutions that increased their net income (or decreased their losses) compared to the same period a year earlier.|
|"Problem" institutions||Federal regulators assign a composite rating to each financial institution, based upon an evaluation of financial and operational criteria. The rating is based on a scale of 1 to 5 in ascending order of supervisory concern. "Problem" institutions are those institutions with financial, operational, or managerial weaknesses that threaten their continued financial viability. Depending upon the degree of risk and supervisory concern, they are rated either a "4" or "5". The number and assets of "problem" institutions are based on FDIC composite ratings. Prior to March 31, 2008, for institutions whose primary federal regulator was the OTS, the OTS composite rating was used.|
|Recourse||An arrangement in which a bank retains, in form or in substance, any credit risk directly or indirectly associated with an asset it has sold (in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles) that exceeds a pro rata share of the bank's claim on the asset. If a bank has no claim on an asset it has sold, then the retention of any credit risk is recourse.|
|Reserves for losses||The allowance for loan and lease losses on a consolidated basis.|
|Restructured loans and leases||Loan and lease financing receivables with terms restructured from the original contract. Excludes restructured loans and leases that are not in compliance with the modified terms.|
|Retained earnings||Net income less cash dividends on common and preferred stock for the reporting period.|
|Return on assets||Bank net income (including gains or losses on securities and extraordinary items) as a percentage of average total assets. The basic yardstick of bank profitability.|
|Return on equity||Bank net income (including gains or losses on securities and extraordinary items) as a percentage of average total equity capital.|
|Risk Categories and Assessment Rate Schedule||
The current risk categories became effective January 1, 2007. Capital ratios and supervisory ratings distinguish one risk category from another. Effective April 1, 2011, risk categories for large institutions (generally those with at least $10 billion in assets) are eliminated. The following table shows the relationship of risk categories (I, II, III, IV) for small institutions to capital and supervisory groups as well as the initial base assessment rates (in basis points) for each risk category. Supervisory Group A generally includes institutions with CAMELS composite ratings of 1 or 2; Supervisory Group B generally includes institutions with a CAMELS composite rating of 3; and Supervisory Group C generally includes institutions with CAMELS composite ratings of 4 or 5. For purposes of risk-based assessment capital groups, undercapitalized includes institutions that are significantly or critically undercapitalized.
Effective April 1, 2011 , the initial base assessment rates are 5 to 35 basis points. An institution’s total assessment rate may be less than or greater than its initial base assessment rate as a result of additional risk adjustments. The base assessment rates for small institutions in Risk Category I are based on a combination of financial ratios and CAMELS component ratings (the financial ratios method).
As required by Dodd-Frank, the calculation of risk-based assessment rates for large institutions no longer relies on long-term debt issuer ratings. Rates for large institutions are based on CAMELS ratings and certain forward-looking financial measures combined into two scorecards—one for most large institutions and another for the remaining very large institutions that are structurally and operationally complex or that pose unique challenges and risks in case of failure (highly complex institutions). In general, a highly complex institution is an institution (other than a credit card bank) with more than $500 billion in total assets that is controlled by a parent or intermediate parent company with more than $500 billion in total assets or a processing bank or trust company with total fiduciary assets of $500 billion or more. The FDIC retains its ability to take additional information into account to make a limited adjustment to an institution’s total score (the large bank adjustment), which will be used to determine an institution’s initial base assessment rate.
Effective April 1, 2011, the three possible adjustments to an institution’s initial base assessment rate are as follows: (1) Unsecured Debt Adjustment: An institution’s rate may decrease by up to 5 basis points for unsecured debt. The unsecured debt adjustment cannot exceed the lesser of 5 basis points or 50 percent of an institution’s initial base assessment rate (IBAR). Thus, for example, an institution with an IBAR of 5 basis points would have a maximum unsecured debt adjustment of 2.5 basis points and could not have a total base assessment rate lower than 2.5 basis points. (2) Depository Institution Debt Adjustment: For institutions that hold long-term unsecured debt issued by another insured depository institution, a 50 basis point charge is applied to the amount of such debt held in excess of 3 percent of an institution’s Tier 1 capital. (3) Brokered Deposit Adjustment: Rates for small institutions that are not in Risk Category I and for large institutions that are not well capitalized or do not have a composite CAMELS rating of 1 or 2 may increase (not to exceed 10 basis points) if their brokered deposits exceed 10 percent of domestic deposits. After applying all possible adjustments (excluding the Depository Institution Debt Adjustment), minimum and maximum total base assessment rates for each risk category are as follows:
Beginning in 2007, each institution is assigned a risk-based rate for a quarterly assessment period near the end of the quarter following the assessment period. Payment is generally due on the 30th day of the last month of the quarter following the assessment period. Supervisory rating changes are effective for assessment purposes as of the examination transmittal date.
Special Assessment – On May 22, 2009 , the FDIC board approved a final rule that imposed a 5 basis point special assessment as of June 30, 2009 . The special assessment was levied on each insured depository institution’s assets minus its Tier 1 capital as reported in its report of condition as of June 30, 2009 . The special assessment will be collected September 30, 2009 , at the same time that the risk-based assessment for the second quarter of 2009 is collected. The special assessment for any institution was capped at 10 basis points of the institution’s assessment base for the second quarter of 2009 risk-based assessment.
Prepaid Deposit Insurance Assessments – In November 2009, the FDIC Board of Directors adopted a final rule requiring insured depository institutions (except those that are exempted) to prepay their quarterly risk-based deposit insurance assessments for the fourth quarter of 2009, and for all of 2010, 2011, and 2012, on December 30, 2009. Each institution’s regular risk-based deposit insurance assessment for the third quarter of 2009, which is paid in arrears, also is payable on December 30, 2009. For regulatory purposes, an institution may assign a zero-percent risk weight to the amount of its prepaid deposit assessment asset.
|Risk-based capital groups||
|Risk-weighted assets||Assets adjusted for risk-based capital definitions which include on-balance-sheet as well as off-balance-sheet items multiplied by risk-weights that range from zero to 200 percent. A conversion factor is used to assign a balance sheet equivalent amount for selected off-balance-sheet accounts.|
|Securities||Excludes securities held in trading accounts. Banks’ securities portfolios consist of securities designated as "held-to-maturity", which are reported at amortized cost (book value), and securities designated as "available-for-sale", reported at fair (market) value.|
|Securities gains (losses)||Realized gains (losses) on held-to-maturity and available-for-sale securities, before adjustments for income taxes. Thrift Financial Report (TFR) filers also include gains (losses) on the sales of assets held for sale.|
|Seller's interest in institution's own securitizations||The reporting bank’s ownership interest in loans and other assets that have been securitized, except an interest that is a form of recourse or other seller-provided credit enhancement. Seller’s interests differ from the securities issued to investors by the securitization structure. The principal amount of a seller’s interest is generally equal to the total principal amount of the pool of assets included in the securitization structure less the principal amount of those assets attributable to investors, i.e., in the form of securities issued to investors.|
|Small Business Lending Fund||
The Small Business Lending Fund (SBLF) was enacted into law in September 2010 as part of the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010 to encourage lending to small businesses by providing capital to qualified community institutions with assets of less than $10 billion. The SBLF program, which is administrated by the U.S. Treasury Department, provided funding to 332 insitutions for more than $4 billion by September 27,2011, the statuory end of the program (http://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/sb-programs/Pages/Small-Business-Lending-Fund.aspx).Under the SBLF Program, the Treasury Department purchased noncumulative perpetual preferred stock from qualifying depository institutions and holding companies (other than Subchapter S and mutual institutions). When this stock has been issued by a depository institution, it is reported as “Perpetual preferred stock and related surplus.” For regulatory capital purposes, this noncumulative perpetual preferred stock qualifies as a component of Tier 1 capital. Qualifying Subchapter S corporations and mutual institutions issue unsecured subordinated debentures to the Treasury Department through the SBLF. Depository institutions that issued these debentures report them as “Subordinated notes and debentures.” For regulatory capital purposes, the debentures are eligible for inclusion in an institution’s Tier 2 capital in accordance with their primary federal regulator’s capital standards. To participate in the SBLF Program, an institution with outstanding securities issued to the Treasury Department under the Capital Purchase Program (CPP) was required to refinance or repay in full the CPP securities at the time of the SBLF funding. Any outstanding warrants that an institution issued to the Treasury Department under the CPP remain outstanding after the refinancing of the CPP stock through the SBLF Program unless the institution chooses to repurchase them.
|Subchapter S Corporation||A Subchapter S corporation is treated as a pass-through entity, similar to a partnership, for federal income tax purposes. It is generally not subject to any federal income taxes at the corporate level. This can have the effect of reducing institutions’ reported taxes and increasing their after-tax earnings.|
|Trust assets||Market value, or other reasonably available value of fiduciary and related assets, to include marketable securities, and other financial and physical assets. Common physical assets held in fiduciary accounts include real estate, equipment, collectibles, and household goods. Such fiduciary assets are not included in the assets of the financial institution.|
|Unearned income & contra accounts||Unearned income for Call Report filers only.|
|Unused loan commitments||Includes credit card lines, home equity lines, commitments to make loans for construction, loans secured by commercial real estate, and unused commitments to originate or purchase loans. (Excluded are commitments after June 2003 for originated mortgage loans held for sale, which are accounted for as derivatives on the balance sheet.)|
|Volatile liabilities||The sum of large-denomination time deposits, foreign-office deposits, federal funds purchased, securities sold under agreements to repurchase, and other borrowings.|
|Yield on earning assets||Total interest, dividend and fee income earned on loans and investments as a percentage of average earning assets.|
|Questions, Suggestions & Requests|